#KNIL-ML #17varwa #122sqn #medan #history

Almost all names came from the living memory of the 122sqn mechanic S. Gerardu.
Thanks!

J.H. Heemsteede-Obelt

KNIL 99 korporaal
mechanic

L.N. Lokollo

KNIL 103 sergeant
mechanic

M. Kerkhoff (Max)

KNIL 28 private 1st class
mechanic

20200611233401 7945626e me
J.J.G van Galen

vaandrig
pilot
Died januari 21 1949 during reconnaisance M. Sumatra . During this flight, a hand grenade exploded and the plane crashed at Boengamas, near Lahat. Passenger soldier Hendrik Kruitbosch (4-4-RI) also died.

20200612000958 9353c02a me
H. Kruitenbosch (4-4-RI)

Colophon

The Case study 17 Squadron VARWA Sumatra - 1946 / 1950 [en] begins in july 1946 and ends in april 1950

By Roel Bazuin
Versie: 2020-06-15

Research
  • short history

  • Piper L4J Cub

  • List of crew including known portraits

  • Sumatra

  • Pictures of crew and planes

This document is an extension of the article 'Rare names and portraits of crew of 122(NEI)Squadron and 17 VARWA'.

The articlebased on online research, literature and data from several persons, mainly names and specific details. It will be used as reference for articles and -parts- embedded in the 122squadron website.

'Reconnaissance and Artillery Observations Squadron'

20200612233446 e158241d

17VARWA was founded in 1946 on july the 15th and manned with ex-prisoners of war from the pre-war ML-KNIL, supplemented by public transport officers from LSK [1].

Their tasks consisted of reconnaissance for the infantry and sighting / fire control for the artillery. 17VARWA was also used for transport, connections, surveillance and postal transport [2].

The squadron was equipped with the Piper L4J Cubs and consisted of a staff and the A, B, C, D and E patrols. They would be stationed at
- 1VB Tjililitan near Batavia (A),
- 2VB Andir in Bandoeng (B),
- Tandjoeng Perak in Surabaya ('C),
- 6VB Kalibenteng in Semarang (D) and
- 4VB Sepinggan on Balikpapan (E)

For the moment 17VARWA was kept at Tjililitan [Ward]. At the end of 1946 A, B and C patrol were redirected to Sumatra.

Figure 1: Piper L-4 Cub scheme 5
"This scheme differs from others because of the white wing tips. These were mounted on aircraft of 17 VARWA, so that they could be easily recognized by the pilots of the Dutch P-51 Mustang fighter aircraft".

On August 25 1946 24 Piper Cups with serials PC4-004/028 arrived in Surabaya by ship. They were bought in the Philippines [3] in june [Ward]. Five aircraft stayed with C-patrol in Surabaya. The remaining aircraft were transferred to Tjililitan.

First the A and E patrols were brought up to strength. Then B and D patrol. In addition, two Piper Cups were added to the C-patrol as these two aircraft had been given up to the Bali-Lombok Brigade aka 'Gadja Merak Brigade' [Ward]p189[1].

17 VARWA was to be stationed on Sumatra, but the planes of the new 6 ARVA, which was to take over the task on Java, were not yet there. In order to meet the demand for air reconnaissance on Sumatra, the A, B and C patrols were moved. D and E patrols remained in Java and were disbanded in 1947, after the arrival of 6 ARVA in february [Ward].

Sumatra

17 VARWA moved to Sumatra at the end of 1946 and was stationed at
- 12VB Talangbetoetoe in Palembang (A-patrol),
- 13VB Tabing, Padang (B-patrol) and
- 11VB Polonia, Medan (C-patrol + staff).

In july 1947 they had 3 Piper Cubs in Palembang, 4 at Padang and 7 at Medan. Each patrol had a reserve plane at Tjililitan [Ward]p190.

Airbase 11VB Polonia - Medan

In September 1946 a detachment from ML arrived in Medan to make preperations for transfer and arrival of squadrons and crew.

The detachment was expanded in October with a few assistants, 2 air traffic controllers and a chief radio station.

4 Piper Cubs arrived in Medan on November 14 1946 for the 17 Squadron VARWA (C-Patrol) [4], next 12 P-51 Mustang fighter aircraft for 122 Squadron and a B-25 with a team from the technical service.

'Police actions'

This war was the largest ever fought by the Netherlands. [Merdeka]
— Jaap A. de Moor
Met Klewang en Karabijn – militaire geschiedenis van Nederlands­ indie 1815-1949

On July 21, 1947, the Netherlands launched a military assault under the code name Operation Product. This designation indicated the assault’s main objective of securing the commercial plantations and stocks (rubber, coffee, tea, etc.) on the two most important islands (Java and Sumatra) in the archipelago in terms of political, military and economic power [5].
Due to international political considerations, the military assault was labeled a 'police action', a misleading term suggesting restricted violence and a limited scope of operation. In reality, the Dutch mobilized over one hundred thousand men, organized into three divisions, several brigades, marine units and a small air force [6] [Merdeka].

During the first 'police action', the squadron was deployed for reconnaissance over republican territory and artillery sighting. 561 sorties were flown at low altitudes. After the first police action, the occupied area was enlarged and longer distances had to be covered. That is why Genie made landing strips in the newly occupied area where the Piper Cubs could easily land and take off.

By the end of this first 'police action' on August 5 1947, seventy percent of total rubber plantation acreage in Java and around sixty percent in Sumatra were under Dutch military control [Merdeka].

On December 19, 1948, Operation Crow started. Operation Crow aimed at full control of Java and the elimination of the political and military leadership of the Republic of Indonesia. On South Sumatra, operations started according to plan on December 29, 1948, with an airborne operation in order to capture the oil fields in Jambi.TNI managed to set the oil installations on fire and slowed the Dutch advance with all sorts of roadblocks and resistance.[Merdeka]

During the second 'police action' 17 VARWA flew 359 ([Ward]: 328) sorties. After Operation Crow, a limitation of the number of flight hours was established, due to a shortage of equipment and personnel.

On January 5, 1949, Operation Crow ended at Sumatra. Airplanes dropped leaflets announcing, “The Republic of Indonesia does not exist anymore” [7]. On the international level, support for the Dutch cause was crippled by Operation Crow. [Merdeka].

On march 1 1950 B- and C-patrol were disbanded. On April 25 1950 A-patrol and staff.

Crew

It’s estimated that Medan staff and C-patrol had between 50 and 70 crew [8].
In januari 1948 17VARWA hat 36 military crew and 36 civilians [Ward]p191.

As of date, the database contains 91 names. 18 (20%) of them are KNIL, most likely pre-war and ex POW’s. 61 KL or ML (67%), 5 civilians (5%) and 7 are not known. One Kl-er is marked as an ovw-er.

Accidents and crashes

  • November 30, 1946, PC4-003, Crashed at Medan during climb. Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2. Written off (damaged beyond repair) [9].

  • February 28, 1947 crash near Belawan. (restored)

  • September 23, 1947 starting accident in Tandjoeng Balei. (written off)

  • May 3, 1948, R-356, Fatalities: 2 / Occupants: 2 (kaptain pilot H.M.A. Leyden and corporal assistant-mechanic of A-patrol Li Soen Fo), Lahat. Written off after accident (damaged beyond repair). Flew into a cable across the Lematang river Southern Sumatra [Ward] [10]

  • mar 1948, R-348, Crash near Medan. Written off (damaged beyond repair). Written off after accident [11].

  • January 4 1949, R-322, crashed near Bondjol during reconnaisance, reserve pilot the 1st luitenant R.J. Jans and wachtman Hoeks died. Hoeks was murdered bij Indonesians, Jans is missing) [12] [13].

  • Januari 21 1949, R-339, crashed into a swamp piloted vaandrig van Galen during reconnaisance M. Sumatra at Boengamas, near Lahat. He died including his passenger private Hendrik Kruitbosch (StafCie 4-4-RI) [14] [Ward]p192.

  • Oktober 22 1949, R-353, Emergency landing and crashed Pajakoemboh,Sumatra during reconnaisance in Piper Cub. Pilot Pikkert + passenger were captured by TNI and released 14 days later.

  • oktober 28 1949, R-360, Crashed near Lahat in landingfase. Written off (damaged beyond repair) [15]

Pictures

Medan

20200611235302 5450d535 20200612001216 e5da1d39 me

Crash salvage Piper Cub [16]

20200609170544 9493f79c me 20200609170544 f36d8163 me 20200609170544 40c6aa6c me (Which crash is not known)

Appendix A: Crewslist

Army and totals Many thanks to P. Wolf!
army sqn total

not known

17 VARWA C

7

civilian

17 VARWA C

5

Huzaren

17 VARWA C

2

KL

17 VARWA C

14

KL OVW

17 VARWA C

1

KNIL

17 VARWA A

1

17 VARWA C

17

LMN

17 VARWA C

12

LSK

17 VARWA C

2

MBP

17 VARWA C

1

ML

17 VARWA C

29

Total Result

91

Database consists of 91 names. Many thanks to P. Wolf!

familyname voorl rank role tasks remarks

Alman bin Kasan

-

Soldaat 2e klas

-

-

-

Ardenne, van

C.

1e Luitenant

Art. Vlg. Vu.L.

-

-

Baier

A.M.

Sergeant

K.V. Vlg.Wnr.

-

-

Bakker

(empty)

Huzaar 1e klas

-

-

-

Berg, v.d.

Ch. S.

Reserve 1e Luitenant

-

-

-

Berhitoe

J.

Soldaat 1e klas

-

-

-

Boers

F.E.

1st luitenant

-

(empty)

-

Born, v.d.

W.

Korporaal

-

-

-

Bos

C.B.

Kapitein

Vlieger waarnemer / commandant

Commander 1946-12-15 / 1948-09-27

-

Brochard

J.W.A.

OVW Korporaal

Inf.

-

-

Bruin, de

G.

Sergeant

Ramon

-

-

Carels

D.

Sergeant-Majoor

-

-

-

Coppen

F.

Korporaal

Inl.

-

-

Corsmit

J.P.G.F.

Kapitein

Vlieger waarnemer/ commandant

Commander 1946-07-30 / 1946-12-19

-

Darsim bin Suradikrama

(empty)

Soldaat 2e klas

-

-

-

Dingemans

J.P.

Vaandrig

Vlieger

-

-

Duchateau

-

Korporaal

-

-

-

Efdée

J.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Enghardt

F.G.

-

-

-

-

Falkenberg

H.F.

1e Luitenant

Art. Vlg. Vu. L.

-

-

Feitz

C.G.L.

Tijd. Res 2e Luitenant

Vlieger

-

-

Galen, van

J.B.J

Vaandrig

Vlieger

-

Died januari 21 1949 during reconnaisance M. Sumatra incl. passenger soldier Hendrik Kruitbosch (4-4-RI). During this flight, a hand grenade exploded and the plane crashed at Boengamas, near Lahat. Aviation training in 1946 in England with the R.A.F.

Goudsblom

-

Soldaat 1e klas

Art.

-

-

Groesz

K.E.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Haringsma

W.S.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Heemstede-Obelt, van

J.H.

private 1st class; 2nd corporal

mechanic

Vimo

-

Heur

P.F.Th.

Soldaat 1e klas

-

-

-

Hoeks

-

wachtman

-

-

Died 4 januari '49 near Bondjol, during reconnaisance in a Piper Cub together with Jans

Hogen Esch

H.A.

Res. 2e Luitenant

Vlieger waarnemer

-

-

Holthuis

H.J.

Res. 2e Luitenant

Vlieger waarnemer

-

-

Hübner

A.R.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Huiskamp

B.

Sergeant

Vlieger waarnemer

-

-

Hummen

H.

Onderluitenant

-

-

-

Jans

R.J.

Res. 2e Luitenant

Vlieger

-

Died 4 januari '49 near Bondjol, during reconnaisance in a Piper Cub together with Hoeks

Jarman

L.

1e Luitenant

Art. Vlg. Vu. L.

-

-

Keim

H.E.

Sergeant

Vlieger waarnemer

-

-

Kerkhoff

M.

soldier 1st class

]

-

-

Kers

J.

Dpl. Soldaat 1e klas

-

-

-

Kilapong

P.

Soldaat 2e klas

-

-

-

Koesoemo

R.A.S.

Korporaal

-

-

-

Koning

J.

Dipl. Soldaat

-

-

-

Konneman

F.W.

Vaandrig

Vlieger

-

-

Kruif, de

G.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Leyden, van

H.M.A

Kapitein

Vlieger waarnemer

-

Died 3 mei '48 te Lahat

Leyen, van

J.

Dpl. Soldaat 1e klas

-

-

-

Lie Goan Joe

-

-

-

-

-

Lie Soen Fo

-

corporal

Ass-mechanic

mechanic A-patrol Talangbetoetoe

Died 3 mei '48 te Lahat

Lie Tjeng Hin

-

-

-

-

-

Lokollo

L.N.

Sergeant

mechanic

Piper-cups

-

Looyengoed

J.

Sergeant-Majoor

-

-

-

Lowes

J.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Marcus

-

Korporaal

-

-

-

Meyer

J.A.

Dipl. Korporaal

Inf.

-

-

Mezach

K.F.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Mobach

A.P.A.

Dipl. Soldaat

-

-

-

Mossou

J.

1e Luitenant

Vlieger waarnemer / commandant

Commander 1949-09-27 � 1950-04-25

-

Nazaruddin

-

-

-

-

-

Oordt, van

G.

Sergeant

Vlieger waarnemer

-

-

Ottens

A.

Dipl. Soldaat 1e klas

-

-

-

Pieschel

F.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Pikkert

-

1st luitenant

-

-

oktober 22 1949, crash during reconnaisance in Piper Cub. Pilot Pikkert + passenger were captured by TNI and released 14 days later.

Ponte

C.J.

Vaandrig

Vlieger

-

-

Proper

W.F.B.

1e Luitenant

Art. Vlg. Vu. L.

-

-

Rakiman bin Soekandi

(empty)

Soldaat 2e klas

-

-

-

Rambonnet

L.

Korporaal

Art.

-

-

Rijkschroeff

A.H.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Romijnders

J.

Dipl. Korporaal

Art.

-

-

Rosiere, de la

C.H.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Rosière, de la

C.H.

Sergeant

-

-

Named Roseier by Gerardu

Ruiter

H.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Sannen

M.M.J.

Dipl. Korporaal

Art.

-

-

Schoonaard

J.W.J.

Sergeant

Inf.

-

-

Schuin

J.N.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Schultz

C.H.

Korporaal

-

-

-

Soedira

O.L.

Soldaat 2e klas

-

-

-

Staleman

E.

Res. 1e Luitenant

-

-

-

Strijker

R.

Korporaal

-

-

-

Stuut

J.

Dipl. Soldaat

Art.

-

-

Sumengkar bin R. Atmosudarmo

(empty)

Soldaat 2e klas

-

-

-

Tan Ping Eng

-

-

-

-

-

Tannemaat

J.W.

Dipl. Soldaat 1e klas

Art.

-

-

Toet

H.E.

1e Luitenant

Art. Vlg. Vu. L.

-

-

Tresoor

W.J.

Dpl. Wmr.

Art.

-

-

Tuel, van

Th. W.

Dipl. Korporaal

Art.

-

-

Verspoor

W.P.

1e Luitenant

Art. Vlg. Vu. L.

-

-

Veugen

P.A.J.

Sergeant

-

-

-

Volgers

E.A.

Vaandrig

Vlieger

-

-

Weber (Weeber)

A.J.

Kapitein

Vlieger waarnemer / commandant

Commander 1948-12-19 � 1949-09-27

-

Wollring

W.J.

Dipl. Soldaat 1e klas

(empty)

-

-

Ybema

J.

Dpl. Wmr.

Art.

-

-

Zanten, van

J.

Dipl. Soldaat 1e klas

Art.

-

-

Ziesel

W.F.J.

Soldaat 1e klas

-

-

-

Appendix B: Piper Cubs of ML-KNIL

A development of the civilian Cub, the two seat L-4J flew for the first time in 1942. The ML-KNIL acquired 84 of them from US war surplus dumps in the Philippines in four batches.

The first batch of four was acquired in February 1946 the ML-KNIL and the aircraft were given serials PC-1/4. On 20 July 1946 these serials were changed into PC0-1/4 and in August to PC4-001/004. It is likely that the PC0 serials were never carried.

This was followed by the purchase of another 24 with serials PC4-004/028 which were acquired in June 1946 and arrived on 25 August 1946.

A number of aircraft were written off. They were PC4-003 (30 November 1946 at Medan), PC4-004 (1 July 1946 at Bali), PC4-010 (15 January 1947 at Tjandjoer), PC4-011 (in March 1947), PC4-020 (31 March 1947 in West Java) and PC4-027 (21 July 1947 at Bandoeng). The remainder of the aircraft were reserialed in August 1947 as R-3xx, with the last two digits of the previous serials.

The third batch of aircraft was originally purchased by the BPM [17]. However, as the company had no pilots or maintenance personnel the aircraft were loaned to the ML-KNIL for a period from July 1946 to 31 December 1946. The aircraft had civilian registrations PK-SAA to PK-SAE and were flown by the ML-KNIL with the last letter of the registration on the tail. In December 1946 the load was extended for one year but with the condition that the ML-KNIL would provide five new L-4Js from its next purchase. In the reserialing that took place in July 1947 aircraft A, B, C, D and E became R-329/333.

The final batch of aircraft was purchased in May 1947 and the aircraft were serialed as R-335/R-380 (R-334 was a Taylorcraft L-2M). In addition to these 46 aircraft, 5 replacement aircraft for the BPM were purchased, which eventually received registrations PK-SAA to PK-SAE.

Of these nine were written off: R-322 (4 January 1949), R-323 (23 September 1947 at Tandjoeng Balei), R-338 (7 November 1947), R-339 (21 January 1949 at Lahat), R-348 (May 1948 at Medan), R-353 (22 October 1949), R-356 (3 May 1948 at Lahat), R-360 (28 October 1949) and R-368 (December 1948 at Mandai).

In addition an unidentified aircraft was written off at Gadoet on 4 January 1949. Aircraft R-346 and R-370 were transferred to Vliegclub Batavia on 1 July 1948 as, resp., PK-SAF and PK-SAG. They were later returned to the ML-KNIL.

As stated, the BPM acquired an initial five L-4Js in July 1946 and loaned these to the ML-KNIL. Replacement aircraft were obtained in May 1947 which were allocated to the Vliegclub Batavia (PK-SAA, PK-SAB and PK-SAC) and Vliegclub Zuid Sumatra (PK-SAD and PK-SAE). Of these PK-SAB was written of at Tandjoeng Priok on an unknown date, whilst PK-SAC was written off at ? on 22 June 1948. The fate of the other aircraft is not known.

From late 1949 to June 1950 61 Piper L-4Js operated by the ML-KNIL remained in a flight worthy state and were gradually transferred to the AURI although one reference sources has suggested seven were handed over in early 1949. Confirmed transfers (based on photographic evidence) are R-307, R-313, R-314, R-344, R-370, R-371 and R-379.

Other serials are R-301, R-302, R-305, R-306, R-308, R-309, R-312, R-315, R-316, R-317, R-318, R-319, R-321, R-324, R-325, R-326, R-328, R-329, R-330, R-331, R-332, R-333, R-335, R-336, R-337, R-340, R-341, R-342, R-343, R-345, R-347, R-349, R-350, R-351, R-352, R-354, R-355, R-357, R-358, R-359, R-361, R-362, R-363, R-364, R-365, R-366, R-367, R-369, R-372, R-373, R-374, R-375, R-376, R-377, R-378 and R-380.

The identity of a Piper Cub in the KalijatiMuseum with R-370 is not known as ML-KNIL?s R-370 had been transferred to civilian status as PK-SAG before June 1950. although it could have been transferred to the AURI at a later date. Aircraft R-371 is displayed at the TNI-AUMuseum in Yogyakarta. Aircraft R-344 is displayed in the TNI Satriamandala museum in Jakarta. It is assumed that the latter aircraft are the actual aircraft and not some later representation.

Appendix C: Gedenkboek Luchtvaart Medan

pagina 18

"Medan in begin, 1947 was een kleine vesting met aan de uiterste rand het vliegveld en aan de andere kant als een lange darm de weg naar Belawan aan de kust. Deze lange darm was soms even pijnlijk als zijn ontstoken blinde collega. Op deze vesting werd braaf geschoten door lieden die wij niet mochten, maar waarvan de goede kwaliteiten ons door bevriende naties, die het weten konden, ten zeerste werden aangeprezen."

"Medan in early 1947 was a small fortress with the airport at the far edge and on the other side, like a long intestine, the road to Belawan on the coast. This long intestine was sometimes as painful as his inflamed blind colleague. this fortress was shot obediently by people we did not like, but whose good qualities were highly praised to us by befriended nations who knew. "

"Om deze goede kwaliteiten te ontdekken werd C Patrouille al spoedig ingeschakeld; dagelijks vlogen de kistjes langs de de- marcatielijn om te zien of alles naar wens verliep. Af en toe knetterde er wel eens een geweer vanaf de grond en soms ver- schenen daardoor gaatjes in het linnen van de toen nog onge- repte Pipertjes. In die dagen dachten we dat er boosaardigheld in het spel was en antwoordden ~dan met een handgranaatje. Wonderen doet zo’n dingetje. Als het te erg werd kwam grote broer, de Mustanng P-51 van 122 Sqd ook nog even kijken. Op- vallend rustig was het altijd daarna.

'the piper cubs flew daily along the demarcation line to see if everything went according to plan. Occasionally a rifle would crackle from the ground and sometimes holes would appear in the linen of the then unspoiled Pipertjes.'

Dan de weg naar Belawan waar de convooien voortdurend in hinderlaag vielen. Gewapend met handgranaten en stenguns cirkelden de ,,tjapoengs" boven de colonnes en tuurden naar elk stukje struikgewas of pondokje om de heren hinderlagers van hun zoete plannen af te houden. Vaak dan ook, als zo’n tjapoengeitje stukviel op de grond, ontstond er grote bedrijvig- heid die bestond uit een in versneld tempo naar huis gaan van de heren beneden. Na verloop van tijd bogon men maar vast te lopen bij verschijnen van de Pipers, dat spaarde onnodig op- onthoud.

In Belawan werd een klein stripje aangelegd waarmee het eerste buitenterreintje was ontstaan in de reeks van de ettelijke, die daarna volgden.

p20

Siantar, Boenoet, Tandjong Balai, Brastagi en Tandjoeng Poera. Te Brastagi werd om de andere dag post gedropt wat weer een nieuw chapiter was in de reeks van werkzaamheden. Een geheel op zichzelf staande gebeurtennis was het steeds wanneer de ter- ritorlaal tvs troepencommandant van Noord Sumatra, generaal majoor Scholten in een pipercub ging zitten (100 kilo, maar vertel het niet verder).

p21

Een ding wat echter nog niet genoemnd als voorwaarde voor de goede samenwerking en het felt dat 17 VARWA in Medan voor zijn taak berekend was. Het was de „sfeer". Onderlinge vriend- schap en wederzijds vertrouwen, het kostbaarste juweel van C Patrouille 17 VARWA.

p21

Als paddestoelen verrezen alom vliegveldjes; brr. wat een illusies van goed vliegerschap zijn er op die veldjes wreed ver- moord, maar ook : wat een prettig contact ontstond tussen M.L. en grondtroepen op die buitenposten tudens detacheringen. Siantar, Boenoet, Rantau Prapat, Padang Sidempoean, Pinang Soreh, Taroetoeng, Balige, Si Borong Borong, Brastagi, Tiga Binanga, allemaal plaatsen waar de pipers weleens hun tenten hebben opgeslagen en het was nodig. De belangstelling voor de andere kant werd zeer levendig gehouden. 't Is altijd een prettig idee om de kerels al eens te hebben gezien, waarmee je straks over het weer gaat praten.

p22

C Patrouille 17 VARWA stierf 1 April 1950 - maar met het besef dat zijn werk werd gewaardeerd door allen die met op- rechtheid het welzijn van Indonesie voorstaan.

De Pipercub streed met open vizier en een zuiver geweten.

Appendix D: Militaire Luchtvaart Medan 1946 /1947

p08

(Medan) "Hoog stond de alang, de huizen bruin en groen van het vuil, afgebrokkelde muren, kapotte daken en ramen, snipervuur alom, nauwelijks een veilig plekje voor onze toestellen, uitgerekend 100 bij 50 meter. Een pracht doel voor onze bruine broeders."

"The alang was high, the houses brown and green with dirt, crumbled walls, broken roofs and windows, snipers everywhere, hardly a safe place for our appliances, 100 by 50 meters. A great goal for our brown brothers."

"Onder leiding van de luitenant Greene, onze compagnies commandant en sgt. Beckx was in enige maanden het bouwvallig geheel dat tangi en basis genoemd werd, omgevormd tot een smakelijk geheel. Putten gegraven, waterleiding hersteld, pompinstallies aangelegd, huizen opgekalefaterd en netjes gekalkt. Niet vragen waar het materiaal en de werk krachten vandaan kwamen."

"Het vliegveld was a.h.w. aan \$3/4\$ zijde ingesloten en had beschietingen te verduren met geweren, mitraileurs, mortieren. Dit werd te gek. Zodoende: allereerst rocketschietoefeningen en bommenwerpoefeningen op de bosrand 2 van de startbaan en het bekende "rode huisje". De Bewapeningsdienst onder de uitstekende en bezielende Ieiding van de Lt. van, Boldrik, Sm. Rijff en Sergt. Wille trokken van leer en ook dit onderdeeltje begon op toeren te komen."

"The airfield was \$3/4\$ enclosed and had to endure shelling with guns, machine guns, mortars. This was crazy. Thus: first of all rocket shooting and bomb throwing exercises on the forest edge of the runway and the famous "red house".

p46

"Tot de basis welke wij van de Engelsen overnamen behoorde ook Medan. Toen onze mensen daar aankwaman troffen zij feitelijk een leeg huis aan. Het vliegveld lag er, maar dat was dan ook practisch alles. De R.A.F. nam zijn materiaal en zijn grond-organisatie mee, en al was die grondorganisatie gebleven dan had zij toch weer niet gepast in de plannen welke de M. L. had."

Appendix E: Abbreviations

ML-KNIL

Militaire Luchtvaart afdeling van het Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger
(Military Aviation department of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army)

VARWA

Verkennings en Artillerie Waarnemings Afdeling
(Reconnaissance and Artillery Observations Division)

RAF

Royal Air Force

KL

Koninklijke Landmacht
(Royal Netherlands Army)

KNIL

Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger
(Royal Dutch East Indies Army)

LSK

Luchtstrijdkrachten
(Air forces)

LuCoSu

Luchtvaart Commando Sumatra
(Aviation Command Sumatra)

SEAC

South East Asia Command

TNI

Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Army)

TRI

Tentara Republic Indonesia

NEI

Netherlands East Indies

OVW

Oorlogs Vrijwilliger
(War Volunteer)

Literature

  • [Ward] Ward, O.G., De militaire luchtvaart van het KNIL in de na-oorlogse jaren 1945-1950. Houten, 1988.
    (The military aviation of the KNIL in the post-war years 1945-1950)

  • [Gedenkboek] Gedenkboek Luchtvaart Medan, maart 1950
    (Medan Aviation Memorial Book)

  • [MLMedan] Militaire Luchtvaart Medan, november 1946 / 1947

  • [Merdeka] Merdeka: Dutch Military Operations in Indonesia (1945 ­ 1950), 2016


1. http://www.indie-1945-1950.nl/web/17varwa.htm
2. https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militaire_Luchtvaart_van_het_Koninklijk_Nederlandsch-Indisch_Leger
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippines
4. 17 VARWA - Verkennings en Artillerie Waarnemings Afdeling - http://www.indie-1945-1950.nl/web/17varwa.htm
5. Groen, Marsroutes en Dwaalsporen, 77
6. J.A. Van Doorn en W.J. Hendrix, Ontsporing van Geweld: Het Nederlands-Indisch Conflict
7. Glissenaar, 68
8. P.Wolf
9. http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/163670
10. http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/163681.
11. http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/163679
12. Gedenkboek ML Medan '50
13. http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/163674
14. http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/163678
15. http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/163682
16. Palmboomdivisie 4-1-RI https://palmboom-divisie.nl/berging-l4j-piper-club/
17. Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij