13 June 2019

There is to be a lot of 'nationalistic talk’[1]. Some say to be 'patriotic’[2]. Some are accused to be a 'xenofobe’[3]. Some say to have lost their 'personal identity' [4] in the process.

#nationalism #fascism #fear #xenofobia & #shared #identity #history #happiness

Version date: 2020-08-27

Fear and factless emotion has overpowered common sense, triggering a general forgetting of history, appearently not realising these are the most peacefull and 'happy' times ever [5] in Europe.

European peoples have common roots. A shared ancestery. You may not want or realise it, but a fact nonetheless.

1920px Happiness score of countries according to the World Happiness Report %282018%29
Figure 1. Map showing happiness of countries

The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network. It contains articles, and rankings of national happiness based on respondent ratings of their own lives

indo europeans
Figure 2. The Spread of the Indo-Europeans

From 4000 BCE, a group of people today known as the Indo-Europeans began to spread from the western Steppes, and dominated everything from Gaul to India by 500 BCE

During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw human inflows from east and southeast and subsequent important cultural and material exchange.

The history in Europe was violent and bloody troughout the centuries. Both World Wars are not that far in the past. As are their causes.

"The political development of nationalism and the push for popular sovereignty culminated with the ethnic/national revolutions of Europe. During the 19th century nationalism became one of the most significant political and social forces in history; it is typically listed among the top causes of World War I.

Napoleon’s conquests of the German and Italian states around 1800–1806 played a major role in stimulating nationalism and the demands for national unity"

We seem to have forgotten most of Europe’s history and learned very very little.

Based on the work of Ollie Bye (Youtube), i’ll take you on a quick overview of around 2500 years of West-European History.


Map of west-Europe 30 BCE

The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome’s control expanded from the city’s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

Common languages Latin (official) Etruscan, Greek, Osco-Umbrian, Venetic, Ligurian, Rhaetian, Nuragic, Sicel, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Punic, Berber, Illyrian, Iberian, Lusitanian, Celtiberian, Gaulish, Gallaecian, Aquitanian (unofficial, but commonly spoken


Map of west-Europe 475 CE

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Latin: Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire, was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

The Franks emerged in the 3rd century as a term covering Germanic tribes living on the northern Rhine frontier of the Roman Empire, including the Bructeri, Ampsivarii, Chamavi, Chattuarii and Salians.

Merovingian rise and decline, 481–687

Common languages Frankish, Latin, Vulgar Latin (Gallo-Roman)


Map of west-Europe 600 CE

Francia split into Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy.


Map of west-Europe 750 CE

Dominance of the mayors of the palace, 687–751

In 689 Pepin launched a campaign of conquest in Western Frisia (Frisia Citerior) and defeated the Frisian king Radbod near Dorestad. All the land between the Scheldt and the Vlie was incorporated into Francia.

Then, circa 690, Pepin attacked central Frisia and took Utrecht.


Map of west-Europe 1000 CE

843: the Treaty of Verdun: Lothair I became Emperor in name but de facto only the ruler of the Middle Frankish Kingdom, or Middle Francia, known as King of the Central or Middle Franks. His three sons in turn divided this kingdom between them into Lotharingia (centered on Lorraine), Burgundy, and (Northern) Italy Lombardy.

These areas with different cultures, peoples and traditions would later vanish as separate kingdoms, which would eventually become Belgium, the Netherlands,Luxembourg, Lorraine, Switzerland, Lombardy and the various departments of France along the Rhône drainage basin and Jura massif.


Map of west-Europe 1400 CE

Before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire. The term sacrum ("holy", in the sense of "consecrated") in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa ("Holy Empire"): the term was added to reflect Frederick’s ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.

Until the 16th century, the Low Countries—corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg—consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and prince-bishoprics, almost all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire.


Map of west-Europe 1600 CE

After the Dutch revolt against Spain erupted, the Empire remained neutral, de facto allowing the Netherlands to depart the empire in 1581, a secession acknowledged in 1648.

A side effect was the Cologne War, which ravaged much of the upper Rhine. The Cologne War (1583–88) was a conflict between Protestant and Catholic faction.

The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.


Map of west-Europe 1700 CE

When Bohemians rebelled against the Emperor, the immediate result was the series of conflicts known as the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), which devastated the Empire.

The actual end of the empire came in several steps. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War, gave the territories almost complete independence.

The Swiss Confederation, which had already established quasi-independence in 1499, as well as the Northern Netherlands, left the Empire.

During the Anglo-French war (1778), the internal territory was divided into two groups: the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American, and the Orangists, who were pro-British.[3] The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of republican revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities.


Map of west-Europe 1800 CE

From 1792 onwards, revolutionary France was at war with various parts of the Empire intermittently.

The empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) abdicated, following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon.

Initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787.

The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806)


Map of west-Europe 1813 CE

After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810).

The Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813.


Map of west-Europe 1814 CE

In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names "United Provinces of the Netherlands" and "United Netherlands" were used.


Map of west-Europe 1815 CE

In 1815, it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège (the "Southern provinces") to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France.

On 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands. Between 1815 and 1890, the King of the Netherlands was also in a personal union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became unequivocally known as the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", as it remains today.


Map of west-Europe 1900 CE

The Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine was replaced by a new union, the German Confederation, in 1815, following the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

It lasted until 1866 when Prussia founded the North German Confederation, a forerunner of the German Empire which united the German-speaking territories outside of Austria and Switzerland under Prussian leadership in 1871. This state developed into modern Germany.


Map of west-Europe 1945 CE

The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of 1932. In August 1939, Hitler’s government negotiated and signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. Following the agreement, on 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe.

German armed forces surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe. After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany’s remaining territory into four military occupation zones.